History of Mental Illness Treatment

Assignment 3: History of Mental Illness Treatment

Early attempts at a medical or scientific treatment of major mental disorders included treatments such as the induction of malaria so that the resulting fever might decrease symptoms of neuro-syphilis, the use of insulin and electroshock causing convulsions to treat schizophrenia, and psychosurgery, including prefrontal lobotomies, to treat violent patients.

Review your assigned reading for this module or look for other scholarly material related to this topic on the Internet. Then, write a position paper on the history of medical treatment of mental illness from a historical perspective. In your paper, include responses to the following questions:

· Has medical treatment impacted the stigma of mental illness?

· Has medication replaced psychotherapy as the primary intervention?

Address your own opinions and biases regarding the use of medication as a routine treatment for mental disorders in modern mental health practice and evaluate the dynamic interactions that occur between drugs and behavior.

Create the paper in a 2–3 page Microsoft Word document and follow APA guidelines.

Through Sunday, October 25, 2015, comment on at least one of the papers written by your classmates. In your critique, address how well your classmate has identified his or her own potential biases and indicate whether you agree or disagree with his or her conclusions. Support your opinion with text, other research, and professional experience.

All written assignments and responses should follow APA rules for attributing sources.

Assignment 3 Grading Criteria Maximum Points
Analyzed how medical treatment has impacted the stigma of mental illness. 4
Examined whether medication has replaced psychotherapy as the primary intervention. 4
Addressed your own opinions and biases regarding the use of medication as a routine treatment for mental disorders in modern mental health practice. 4
Analyzed the dynamic interactions that occur between drugs and behavior. 4
Analyzed how well your classmate has identified his or her own potential biases and indicated whether you agree or disagree with his or her conclusions. 4
Supported your opinion with text, other research, and professional experience. 4
Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources, displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation. 4
Total: 28

Running head: MENTAL 1

MENTAL 2

Mental Medications History

Irene Opuka

C7459: M1A3

October, 21 2015

Position Paper

This paper will present an overview of the history of mental illness and will include its impact on stigmatization and replacement by psychotherapy. It has been found that over the past 40 years the dominant paradigm for understanding severe mental illness has shifted from a psychosocial model that emphasized factors such as parental and intrapsychic influences to a current biopsychosocial model that emphasizes the interplay between biological and psychosocial factors (Drake, Goldman, Green, & Mueser, 2003). The history of care and treatment of mental illness presents as an endless journey between the mental hospital and living in the community. In reviewing articles it is intriguing to learn of the evolution from mental illness. In the 17th century mental illness was considered as an individual and not societal issue to be handled by the family. Next, came about treatment with minimal research such as the malaria therapy in the 20th century. Followed by the field becoming psychodynamic and analytical with synthesis of the first psychoactive drug, Thorazine in the 1950s. Then the discussion of patients’ rights (Civil Rights Movement) came about and has led to current progression to demanding the treatment of mental health in the least restrict setting for treatment.

I have always had the assumption that when working with the mental needs of an individual, it takes a collaborative approach as it would with the physical needs. With the physical need, for example, if an individual had a swollen face and went to their general physician, who may refer them to an allergist for further examination and rule out. In this case the allergist who would communicate with the general physician of findings and probably follow-up. This cycle of communication typical continues with the stakeholders of the individual in care to include family members. My assumption was that, that is the same in mental health. However in reviewing the history of mental health, I was unaware that many nonmedical practitioners are not comfortable communicating with those prescribing medication. Another highlighting point of history is the notion of losing a client to the psychologist if referred to the psychologist for psychological testing.

Literature reveals that in the 1980s, mental health clinicians and policy makers began to recognize the high rate and clinical consequences of comorbidities among persons with severe mental disorders. Treatment interventions that target symptoms and illness have gradually been extended to comorbid conditions, such as substance abuse and common associated medical problems. It is enlightening to know that collaborating learning experiences led to integrated treatment approaches in which mental illness, substance abuse, and medical problems were treated by the same usually through the work of multidisciplinary team of clinicians. The teams has the expertise in each of these areas and combines the different approaches for the sake of helping the clients to pursue multiple recoveries in a coordinated fashion with one set of providers. I strongly advocate and agree that nonmedical therapists should have a working knowledge of psychotropic medication and they should remain updated with current effective treatments. However if I’m not a prescribing therapist then I still would referral to the expert as that would be beyond my scope of expertise.

Those mental disorders that interrupt, destabilize, and imperil lives for years, also referred to as severe mental illness continue to challenge and preoccupy psychiatry and the other mental health professions (Drake et al., 2003). The data, compiled by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) indicates that every year, about 42.5 million American adults (or 18.2 percent of the total adult population in the United States) suffers from some mental illness, enduring conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia. In addition the SAMHSA statistics indicate that approximately 9.3 million adults, or about 4 percent of those Americans ages 18 and older, experience serious mental illness. That is, their condition impedes day-to-day activities, such as going to work. Fifty years after the hopeful introduction of antipsychotic and antidepressant medications, and forty years after legislation to establish the community mental health centers, the basic etiology, the fundamental pathophysiology, and the definitive treatment for disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression continue to be elusive (Drake et al., 2003).

References

Drake, R. E., Goldman, H. H., Green, A. I., & Mueser, K. T. (2003). The history of community mental health treatment and rehabilitation for persons with severe mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal, 39(5), 427-40. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/228361464?accountid=34899

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